Saturday, December 10, 2011

Northeast Monsoon

The two main monsoon seasons in Malaysia are the Northeast Monsoon and the Southwest Monsoon Season. In between the two monsoon there are two short inter-monsoon periods which are the Pre South-West Monsoon and Pre North-East Monsoon. The monsoon that affects the living of the Peninsular Malaysia east coast, particularly those in the fishing industry is mainly the Northeast Monsoon which will bring strong wind and rainfall from November to January.

Northeast Monsoon season is characterized by constant winds that blow from the northeast. It is associated with the development of the Siberian High which is a massive collection of cold dry air on the Eurasian terrain and the movement of the heating maxima from the Northern Hemisphere to the Southern Hemisphere. Northeasterly winds flow down Southeast Asia with wind speeds reaching as high as 30 to 40 km/hr.


Rough sea in NE monsoon season even after sheltered by the Seribuat Island 

During the season, the states in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, coastal areas of Sarawak and Sabah will experience episodes of heavy rain continued for a total of two to three days due to monsoon surges. In the case of extreme weather,the whole episode of heavy rain can last for three to eight days, and may cause flood. However, there are usually several days of good weather that is either with no rain or little rain that occur between the heavy rainfall episodes.

The northeast monsoon causes most of the Peninsular east coast fishermen not able to continue fishing. Many fishermen will start to face with monetary issues and turn to the middleman for loan. The fisherman in Tanjung Leman is a little more lucky because their fishing area is located behind the Seribuat islands. There are some days that strong wind and thunderstorm will disrupt their fishing routine but they will still be able to fish during the season.


Highly sought after Yellow Croaker or Gelama Mas in Malay

The monsoon season also changes the species of fish caught by the fishermen in the east coast. During the beginning of the season, fish species from the mackerel and threadfin family will be abundant. The highly sought after Yellow Croaker that is gold in color is one of the species that can only be found during Northeast Monsoon. Spiny lobster will also move in nearer to shore and become abundant. Grouper on another hand will become scarce as they move further out into the sea.

Friday, November 4, 2011

Johor Regatta 2011

Here are some of the beach scene taken last weekend for KFC Felda Johor Open 2011. The match are held on 28-30th October at Tanjung Leman. We're not allowed to carry out our usual fishing activities during the occasion.

Scene with the Pulau Tinggi and Pulau Sibu in the background.


Contestants coming back.



I like this picture best.


Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Puffer and non-edible fishes

The catch was terible last Saturday and I get all sorts of non edible fish in the bubu. Yeah! At last one page for the puffer fish!

This one is a beauty, it is called Black-blotched porcupinefish or Diodon liturosus. This is quite common here I think. I've got this twice so far.



This one is called Half-smooth golden pufferfish or Lagocephalus Spadicus.


This is called the Diamondback Puffer.


This is called Arothron reticularis or Reticulated pufferfish.



This one below is a juvenile Immaculate pufferfish or Arothron Immaculatus.




This species is called  Map puffer or Arothron mappa




This species is called Green pufferfish or Tetraodon fluviatilis



Spotted green pufferfish or Tetraodon nigroviridis.



This one is the Shortnose boxfish or Rhynchostracion nasus.




This one is not a puffer fish species. It's a dangerous scorpion fish that can inflict a painful injury with it's venomous dorsal sting. It's a Raggy Stonefish or Scorpaenopsis venosa (Cuvier, 1829)



Here is another venomous scorpion fish. It's a Tassled scorpionfish or Scorpaenopsis oxycephala  (Bleeker, 1849).



This one below is either a Butterflyfish or Angelfish species, suitable for aquarium. It's correct name is still unknown to me. Let me know if you have any idea what it's called.


This one is common aquarium fish, called Copperband butterflyfish or Chelmon rostratus (Linnaeus, 1758).


Tuesday, September 27, 2011

About Grouper

Groupers are from the Serranidae family. They are the real sea basses. Members of Serranidae family typically have opercles (gill covers) with three spines; one main spine with a lesser spine above and below. There are 64 genera and approximately 475 species worldwide. Malaysia is represented by 15 genera and approximately 68 species. Groupers can attain up to 3 m maximum length and weights of up to 400 kg.

The name "grouper" comes from the Portuguese name "garoupa" for the fish. In Malaysia and Indonesia, it is called "kerapu" which is also believed to come from the word "garoupa". Contrary to their name which suggests the fish stays in group, they are actually the solitary type. Unlike snappers which move in groups, they are intolerant of the same species or other similar fishes. Most species gather together in pairs or aggregations only for spawning. Many species are hermaphrodites, meaning that they can change their sex. They start out as females and change to male at a later stage.

Groupers are mostly demersal (benthic or bottom-oriented) fishes of tropical and subtropical areas, ranging from shallow coastal waters to moderate depths; the great majority of species occur in less than 200 m.They are usually found over coral reefs, and rocky bottoms along the coasts.

Typical groupers have a stout body and a large mouth. They do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth palates inside they pharynx. Their mouth and gills form a powerful sucking system that can suck their prey in from a distance. They habitually eat fish, squid, and crustacean. They swallow prey rather than biting pieces of it and that makes them easy to get hook by bait. Normally a squid bait can be used over and over again.

Their coloration and ability to change hues and shades to blend in with their surroundings allow them to camouflage and lie in wait for prey rather than chasing in open water. They will ambush, dash and strike the prey in short distance. Right after they suck the bait, they will normally go into the rocks or structure that is surrounding them. When threatened, they use their mouth to expand their gill covers digging them into rock cave sides to form their shelters. Their gill muscles are so powerful that it is very difficult to pull them out of a cave.

There are 64 genera and approximately 475 species worldwide. Malaysia is represented by 15 genera and approximately 68 species.

Groupers are abundant in Tanjung Leman. They can be easily caught by bottom line fishing and bubu (local fish trap). Species of grouper found in Tanjung Leman are as follows:



Grouper Species:


Scientific Name: Cephalopholis boenak  (Bloch, 1790)
English Name: Chocolate Hind, Brown-barred Grouper
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 印度石斑 (Yìndù shí bān)
Local Malay Name: Kerapu Tenggarong, Kerapu Belang Perang
Main Diagnostic Features: Body brown, with 7 or 8 more or less distinct dark bars. Fins dark brown, with a pale blue line at corners of caudal fin.
Size: Maximum total length 30 cm.







Scientific Name: Cephalopholis formosa  (Shaw, 1812)
English Name: Bluelined Grouper, Bluelined Hind, Bluelined Rockcod
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 蓝线石斑 (Lán xiàn shí bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Garis Biru
Local Hokkien: Thee Swa Gau
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan
Main Diagnostic Features: Colour generally brown or yellowish brown, with dark blue lines on head, body, and fins. Black spot between upper 2 opercular spines.
Size: Maximum total length 34 cm.







Scientific Name: Cephalopholis cyanostigma   (Valenciennes, 1828)
English Name: Bluespotted Hind
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú)
Local Malay Name: Kerapu Bintik Biru, Kerapu Karang
Main Diagnostic Features: Blue ocelli on head, body, and basally on median fins.
Size: Maximum total length at 40 cm.









Scientific Name: Diploprion bifasciatum Cuvier, 1828
English Name: Barred SoapfishFrench Name: Savon à deux bandes
Mandarin Name: 肥皂鱼 (Féizào yú)
Local Malay Name: Kerapu Sebekah, Sebekah Laut
Main Diagnostic Features: Body compressed with yellow colour posterior.
Size: Maximum total length 25 cm.







Scientific Name: Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål, 1775)
English Name: Areolate Grouper
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 西星斑 (Xi xīng bān)
Local Malay Name: Kerapu Ekor Putih, Kerapu Bintik Bulat
Local Hokkien: Koay Gau
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck PanMain Diagnostic Features: Head, body, and fins covered with numerous close-set brown, brownish yellow or greenish yellow spots. Posterior edge of caudal fin with a distinct white margin.
Size: Maximum total length about 40 cm.






Scientific Name: Epinephelus bleekeri  (Vaillant, 1878)
English Name: Duskytail Grouper
French Name: Mérou demideui
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 红点油班 (Hóng diǎn yóu bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Ekor Gelap
Local Hokkien: Koay Gau
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan
Main Diagnostic Features: Dorsal fin and upper third of caudal fin with spots like those on body. Lower two-thirds of caudal fin dusky.
Size: Maximum total length about 76 cm.






Scientific Name: Epinephelus coioides  (Hamilton, 1822)
English Name: Orange-spotted Grouper, Goldspotted Rockcod, Brownspotted Grouper, Estuary Cod
French Name: Mérou taches oranges
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 红点石斑 (Hóng diǎn shí bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu bintik jingga, Kerapu Pinang, Kerapu Balong, Kerapu Rintek, Kerapu Pakpanang
Local Hokkien: Chia Gau
Main Diagnostic Features: Numerous small brownish orange or reddish brown spots on head, body, and median fins. Body with 5 faint, irregular, oblique, dark bars. Caudal fin not dusky.
Size: Maximum length at least 95 cm.







Scientific Name: Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes, 1828)
English Name: Coral Grouper
French Name: Mérou corail
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Karang, Kerapu Pisang
Main Diagnostic Features: Grey in colour, with well-separated black spots smaller than pupil on head, body and fins. 3 dusky to blackish blotches on body at base of rear half of dorsal fin. Dusky to blackish saddle spot on caudal peduncle.
Size: Maximum total length about 49 cm.






Scientific Name: Epinephelus erythrurus  (Valenciennes, 1828)
English Name: Cloudy Grouper, Cloudy Rockcod, Garoupa
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 石头斑 (Shítou bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Tompok Awan, Kerapu Combat
Local Hokkien: Koay Gau
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan
Main Diagnostic Features: Body with white and brown patches that form many cloud like pattern.
Size: Maximum total length about 45 cm.







Scientific Name: Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus  (Peters, 1865)
English Name: Rock Grouper, Red Banded Grouper
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 青眼斑 (Qīng yǎn bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Batu, Tongkah
Local Hokkien: Koay Gau, Gau Hu
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan
Main Diagnostic Features: 5 slightly oblique broad dark bars usually visible on body. The last bar covering peduncle and the first 4 extending into dorsal fin. The first 2 bars are darker dorsally and extend to the margin of spinous dorsal fin.
Size: Maximum total length about 30 cm.







Scientific Name: Epinephelus fasciatus  (Forsskål, 1775)
English Name: Blacktip Grouper
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 赤石斑鱼 (Chìshí bān yú)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Sirip Hitam, Kerapu Merah
Main Diagnostic Features: The outer triangular part of interspinous membranes of dorsal fin black or dark red, with pale yellow or white spot behind tip of each spine.
Size: Maximum total length about 40 cm.







Scientific Name: Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790)
English Name: Giant Grouper, Brindlebass, Brown Spotted Cod, Bumblebee Grouper, Queensland Groper
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 鞍帶石斑魚(Ān dài shí bān yú), 龙旦 (Lóng dàn)
Local Malay Name:Ikan Kertang, Kerapu Pertang
Local Cantonese: Long Tan
Main Diagnostic Features: Fins (most visible on pectoral fin) with numerous small black spots. Body colour vary from juvenile to adult.
Size: One of the largest groupers, attains 270 cm total length. Maximum weight 400 kg.







Scientific Name: Epinephelus quoyanus  (Valenciennes, 1830)
English Name: Longfin Grouper
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 蜜蜂斑 (Mìfēng bān)
Local Malay Name:Ikan Kerapu Cicak, Kerapu Tukul
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan
Main Diagnostic Features: Large, close-set, hexagonal to roundish, dark brown to blackish spots. Ventral edge of anal and caudal fins and leading edge of pelvic fins with white line and blackish submarginal band.
Size: Maximum total length 40 cm.







Scientific Name: Epinephelus sexfasciatus (Valenciennes, 1828)
English Name: Sixbar Grouper, Garoupa
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 糯米石斑 (Nuòmǐ shí bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu Bebeh
Local Hokkien: Koay Gau
Local Teochew: Gao Hu
Local Cantonese: Seck Pan
Main Diagnostic Features: Body pale to dark brown with 5 dark brown bars on body and 1 on nape. Relatively large dark spots on dorsal, anal and caudal fins.
Size: Maximum total length 28 cm.







Scientific Name: Plectropomus leopardus  (Lacepède, 1802)
English Name: Common Coral Trout, Leopard Trout, Leopard Coral Grouper
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 七星斑 (Qī xīng bān)
Local Malay Name: Kerapu Sunoh Bara, Kerapu Bintang
Local Hokkien: Ang Gau
Main Diagnostic Features: Body covered in a profusion of small blue dots. Pectoral fin transparent and without blue dots. Distinctive blue ring around the eye.
Size: Maximum standard length 120 cm, commonly 35 cm.









Scientific Name: Plectropomus maculatus  (Bloch, 1790)
English Name: Barcheek Coral Trout, Spotted Coral Grouper
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 东星斑 (Dōng xīng bān)
Local Malay Name: Ikan Kerapu sunoh pisang, Kerapu Bara
Local Hokkien: Chut Bee Gau, Ang Gau
Main Diagnostic Features: Head, body, and median fins greenish grey, brown, red, or orange-red, with dark-edged blue spots. Spots on head and anterior part of body oval or horizontally elongated. The spots become much smaller, more uniformly round, and more numerous on rear part of body and on fins.
Size: Maximum total length about 125 cm









Scientific Name: Variola albimarginata  Baissac, 1953
English Name: White-edged Lyretail, White-edged Lunartail
Mandarin Name: 石斑魚 (Shí bān yú), 白缘星鲙 (Bái yuán xīng kuài)
Local Malay Name: Kerapu Sabit Putih
Main Diagnostic Features: Caudal fin lunate. Margin of caudal fin with a narrow white edge.
Size: Maximum total length 47 cm.






Nutritional Facts for Grouper:

Item: Fish, grouper, mixed species, raw
Refuse: 0%
Scientific Name: Epinephelus spp.
NDB No: 15031 (Nutrient values and weights are for edible portion)


NutrientUnitsValue per
100 grams
Number
of Data
Points
Std.
Error
Proximates
Water
g
79.22
6
0.478
Energy
kcal
92
0
0.000
Energy
kJ
385
0
0.000
Protein
g
19.38
6
0.457
Total lipid (fat)
g
1.02
7
0.000
Ash
g
1.17
5
0.014
Carbohydrate, by difference
g
0.00
0
0.000
Fiber, total dietary
g
0.0
0
0.000
Minerals
Calcium, Ca
mg
27
5
4.075
Iron, Fe
mg
0.89
5
0.015
Magnesium, Mg
mg
31
3
0.580
Phosphorus, P
mg
162
5
0.000
Potassium, K
mg
483
3
9.220
Sodium, Na
mg
53
4
9.409
Zinc, Zn
mg
0.48
51
0.030
Copper, Cu
mg
0.020
52
0.002
Manganese, Mn
mg
0.014
3
0.001
Selenium, Se
µg
36.5
0
0.000
Vitamins
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid
mg
0.0
0
0.000
Thiamin
mg
0.070
2
0.000
Riboflavin
mg
0.005
2
0.000
Niacin
mg
0.313
1
0.000
Pantothenic acid
mg
0.750
0
0.000
Vitamin B-6
mg
0.300
0
0.000
Folate, total
µg
9
0
0.000
Folic acid
µg
0
0
0.000
Folate, food
µg
9
0
0.000
Folate, DFE
µg_DFE
9
0
0.000
Vitamin B-12
µg
0.60
2
0.000
Vitamin A, RAE
µg_RAE
43
0
0.000
Retinol
µg
43
0
0.000
Vitamin A, IU
IU
143
0
0.000
Lipids
Fatty acids, total saturated
g
0.233
0
0.000
4:0
g
0.000
0
0.000
6:0
g
0.000
0
0.000
8:0
g
0.000
0
0.000
10:0
g
0.000
0
0.000
12:0
g
0.000
0
0.000
14:0
g
0.012
2
0.000
16:0
g
0.169
2
0.000
18:0
g
0.049
2
0.000
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated
g
0.202
0
0.000
16:1 undifferentiated
g
0.027
2
0.000
18:1 undifferentiated
g
0.145
2
0.000
20:1
g
0.029
1
0.000
22:1 undifferentiated
g
0.007
1
0.000
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated
g
0.321
0
0.000
18:2 undifferentiated
g
0.012
2
0.000
18:3 undifferentiated
g
0.010
1
0.000
18:4
g
0.000
0
0.000
20:4 undifferentiated
g
0.033
2
0.000
20:5 n-3 (EPA)
g
0.027
2
0.000
22:5 n-3 (DPA)
g
0.010
2
0.000
22:6 n-3 (DHA)
g
0.220
2
0.000
Cholesterol
mg
37
2
0.000
Amino acids
Tryptophan
g
0.217
0
0.000
Threonine
g
0.849
0
0.000
Isoleucine
g
0.893
0
0.000
Leucine
g
1.575
0
0.000
Lysine
g
1.779
0
0.000
Methionine
g
0.574
0
0.000
Cystine
g
0.208
0
0.000
Phenylalanine
g
0.756
0
0.000
Tyrosine
g
0.654
0
0.000
Valine
g
0.998
0
0.000
Arginine
g
1.159
0
0.000
Histidine
g
0.570
0
0.000
Alanine
g
1.172
0
0.000
Aspartic acid
g
1.984
0
0.000
Glutamic acid
g
2.892
0
0.000
Glycine
g
0.930
0
0.000
Proline
g
0.685
0
0.000
Serine
g
0.791
0
0.000
Other
Alcohol, ethyl
g
0.0
0
0.000


Source: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24 (2011)






References:

Heemstra. P.C. (2002). Perciformes: Percoidei: Serranidae in: Carpenter, K.E. (ed.). THE LIVING MARINE RESOURCES OF THE WESTERN CENTRAL ATLANTIC Volume 2 Bony fishes part 1 (Acipenseridae to Grammatidae). Rome, FAO. 2002. pp.1308-1369

Mohd Azmi Ambak, Mansor Mat Isa, Mohd Zaidi Zakaria and Mazlan Abd Ghaffar (2010) Fishes of Malaysia. Universiti Malaysia Trengganu, Malaysia. Penerbit UMT.

Family Serranidae - Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets. Fishbase. Available at:
http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/FamilySummary.php?ID=289

USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. USDA. Available at http://www.nal.usda.gov

Friday, September 23, 2011

Back to line fishing

This week I didn't pick up any fish from my bubu. We went rod and line fishing in Batu Malang using bigfin reef squid as bait. There was a dolphin there but I'm not able to capture any photograph of it.


Caught quite many groupers and a Yellow Streaked Snapper. The Yellow Streaked Snapper is not a common snapper species in this area.


Came back quite late that night and the pictures of the fish from the 2 inches nylon net had to be captured in very poor lighting. Guess I had to change those once I get newer catch of those.

Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Rain, snake and fish from Pulau Tinggi

The catch for the week is just OK, as usual mostly groupers and snappers. Saturday was a rainy day and I didn't go to sea. Instead I drove to the old jetty. There are some folks fishing. They only caught some belanger croakers. Feels good to be on the jetty. The photograph below was taken from my car.



Sea is quite rough for this week. I had to admit I vomited in the sea while waiting for the boat to start up. It was the last pull when my "tekong", Encik Salleh can't start his engine.

Got this picture of a 2 meters yellow king cobra by the road side on Sunday morning.



The fish pictures collected this week is very good as I got a fisherman friend just came back from Pulau Tinggi with his bubu catch. For the first time I had a big range of parrot fish pictures. Going to take some time before I can figure out what species are these and put it into my fish identification list..